It is the practice of some techniques to secure the communication process in the presence of other people, who are called adversaries. In general, cryptography is concerned with creating systems that prevent enemies or the public from reading private messages. That is, by means of converting data (such as writing) from its natural form that is intelligible to anyone into an incomprehensible form such that it is impossible for anyone who does not have specific secret knowledge to know its content. Various areas of information security science such as information confidentiality, information integrity, and data authentication are considered fundamental aspects of modern cryptography. In its contemporary form, cryptography is found in a number of sciences, such as mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication sciences, and physics. Today, this science enjoys a prominent position among the sciences, as its practical applications have diversified to include multiple fields, including: e-commerce, electronic payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.
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